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William Virkler, M.B.A.
Chair of Criminal Justice

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Examples Of APA Style Documentation

APA In-Text Citations



Citations of Paraphrases


1. One Author
2. Two or More Authors
3. Authors with Two or More Works in the Same Year
4. Two or More Authors with the Same Last Name

Citations of Quotations


1. Group or Corporate Author
2. Works Cited by Title

References in APA Style


3. Reference to more than one source
4. Reference to an entire online source
5. Other references to retrievable online sources
6. References to nonretrievable online sources
7. Source lines for graphics and table data

Citation of paraphrases

Citing a work by one author

1. Choo (2000) found similar patterns for Korean American youth gangs in New York city
2. The average age of youth gang members tends to be older due to the lack of legitimate job (Hagedorn, 1988)

Citing one work by three or more authors

1. Holland, Holt, Levi and Beckett (1983) indicate that...
2. After first citation, you can state: Holland et al. (1983) also found...

Citing works by several authors

1. After the Civil Rights movement a growing number of racial/ethnic scholars such as Almaguer (1975), Barrera (1978) and Takaki (1979) challenged...
2. The subjects of this study seemed to perform their duties as determined by the institutional arrangements within which they worked (Watson, Kumar, &Michaelsen, 1993; Cox, Loevl, & Mcloed, 1991; Fitzgerald, 1993)

Citations of Quotations

1. Kenneth Clark (1979) raised some interesting questions concerning artistic "masterpieces" (p105)
2. She Stated, "The essence of the issue is reality vs. perception" (Cox, 1993, p.132), as noted earlier.

References

Book by one author

1. Takaki, R. T. (1979). Iron cages: race and culture in nineteenth-century America. New York, NY: Knopf.

An edited book

1. Jelin, E. (Ed.). (1991). Family, household, and gender relations in Latin America. New York, NY: Routledge, Chapman &Hall

Article or chapter in edited book

1. Ruiz, V. L. (1992). Star struck: Acculturation, adolescence, and Mexican American women, 1920-1950. In E. West & P. Petrik (eds.), Small worlds: Children and adolescents in America, 1850-1950. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Article from a scholarly journal

1. Martinez, E. (1993). Beyond black/white: The racism of our time. Social Justice, 20, 22-35.